Prior to the Russian aggression on Ukraine in February 2022 and the subsequent energy crisis, Denmark’s total dependency on Russian energy imports stood at 21.1%, which was below the EU average of 24.4%. Notably, Denmark also had one of the EU’s lowest gas import dependencies with only 4% of its total energy consumption covered by Russian gas. Furthermore, Denmark’s strong wind power sector, along with domestic reserves of fossil fuels (including oil and gas industries), resulted in a high level of self-sufficiency, reaching 60% in 2022. Consequently, in comparison to many other EU Member States, Denmark faced fewer challenges in diversifying its energy imports away from Russia. As a result, the impact of the EU’s energy sanction packages against Russia on the Danish energy sector was relatively low, with more immediate effects observed in the substitution of Russian coal and wood pellets.

This paper assesses the impact of the energy crisis on Denmark. It delves into the specifics of the Danish case by analysing the energy situation of the domestic energy market prior to the war in Ukraine in 2022, the short- and long-term policy responses following its outbreak, the impact of the conflict and the energy sanctions on Denmark’s domestic energy sector, and its alignment with the EU climate goals.

Access the paper “Energy Without Russia: The Consequences of the Ukraine war and the EU Sanctions on the Energy Sector in Europe” by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung here