The Netherlands is aiming for a rapid transition to a carbon-neutral economy that supports strong economic growth and energy security. To drive this transition, the government’s energy and climate policy focuses on bringing down greenhouse gas emissions, with targets to reduce them by 49% by 2030 and by 95% by 2050, compared with 1990 levels. The country’s 2019 Climate Agreement defines policies and measures to support the achievement of these emissions reductions and was developed through a collaborative process involving parties from across Dutch society.

The Netherlands has made notable progress on its transition to a carbon-neutral economy. Thanks to increasing energy efficiency, energy demand shows signs of decoupling from economic growth. In addition, the share of energy from renewable sources doubled between 2008 and 2019. However, the Netherlands remains heavily reliant on fossil fuels and has a concentration of energy- and emission-intensive industries that will be hard to decarbonise.