The “U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Development: Overview and Issues for the 118th Congress” has been updated in September 2023 and has been prepared by the Congressional Research Service for the members and committee of Congress.

The Biden Administration has announced a governmentwide effort to deploy 30 gigawatts (GW) of offshore wind energy by 2030 and a related goal to deploy 15 GW of installed floating offshore wind capacity by 2035. Several U.S. offshore wind projects have been developed, or are under development, in state-owned and federally owned waters.

Congress has debated whether—and, if so, how and to what extent—to promote the development of U.S. offshore wind energy. For example, P.L. 117-169, commonly known as the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, appropriated funding for offshore wind transmission planning and established new tax credits available to offshore wind developers and manufacturers, among other provisions. Some stakeholders seek to further expedite federal offshore wind leasing to assist coastal states in meeting renewable power commitments, facilitate a transition away from fossil fuel energy, and promote employment in the offshore wind sector. Others have expressed concerns that offshore wind leasing may be proceeding too quickly, especially given potential conflicts with other ocean uses. Congress also may continue to consider offshore wind deployment issues related to domestic capacity for infrastructure installation, physical connections to deliver offshore wind power to the onshore power grid, and domestic electricity markets to sell into competitively. Additional issues concern the optimal disposition of federal revenues from offshore wind development.

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